Cilia-assisted hydromagnetic pumping of biorheological couple stress fluids
K. Ramesh a, D. Tripathi b,*, O. Anwar Bég c
a. Department of Mathematics, Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis International University, Pune, 412115, India
b. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manipal University Jaipur, Rajasthan, 303007, India
c. Fluid Mechanics/Propulsion, Aeronautical/Mechanical Engineering Department, Salford University, Manchester, UK
Abstract: A theoretical study is conducted for magnetohydrodynamic pumping of electro-conductive couple stress physiological liquids (e.g. blood) through a two-dimensional ciliated channel. A geometric model is employed for the cilia which are distributed at equal intervals and produce a whip-like motion under fluid interaction which obeys an elliptic trajectory. A metachronal wave is mobilized by the synchronous beating of cilia and the direction of wave propagation is parallel to the direction of fluid flow. A transverse static magnetic field is imposed transverse to the channel length. The Stokes’ couple stress (polar) rheological model is utilized to characterize the liquid. The normalized two-dimensional conservation equations for mass, longitudinal and transverse momentum are reduced with lubrication approximations (long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions) and feature a fourth order linear derivative in axial velocity representing couple stress contribution. A coordinate transformation is employed to map the unsteady problem from the wave laboratory frame to a steady problem in the wave frame. No slip conditions are imposed at the channel walls. The emerging linearized boundary value problem is solved analytically and expressions presented for axial (longitudinal) velocity, volumetric flow rate, shear stress function and pressure rise. The flow is effectively controlled by three geometric parameters, viz cilia eccentricity parameter, wave number and cilia length and two physical parameters, namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) body force parameter and couple stress non-Newtonian parameter. Analytical solutions are numerically evaluated with MATLAB software. Axial velocity is observed to be enhanced in the core region with greater wave number whereas it is suppressed markedly with increasing cilia length, couple stress and magnetic parameters, with significant flattening of profiles with the latter two parameters. Axial pressure gradient is decreased with eccentricity parameter whereas it is elevated with cilia length, in the channel core region. Increasing couple stress and magnetic field parameter respectively enhance and suppress pressure gradient across the entire channel width. The pressure-flow rate relationship is confirmed to be inversely linear and pumping, free pumping and augmented pumping zones are all examined. Bolus trapping is also analyzed. The study is relevant to MHD biomimetic blood pumps.
Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics; Metachronal waves; Cilia; Synchronous beating; Polar couple stress fluid; Physiological transport; Magnetic blood pumps